## Counting Pets

Gerry has several pets at home.

All of them are dogs, except for three.

All of them are cats, except for four.

All of them are tortoises, except for five.

How many dogs does he have?

## Logical Reasoning in Pattern Recognition

Bongard problem is a kind of puzzle invented by the Soviet computer scientist Michael Bongard (1924–1971) in the mid-1960s. He died in 1971 during a hiking expedition in the Pamir Mountains. The tests played an important role in the disciplines of cognitive psychology and cognitive science. Human logical reasoning has a great advantage over computer intelligence.

Here several problems similar to the original Bongard problems go:

What is the main difference between the pictures on the left page and on the right page?

A.

B.

C.

Try to solve the problem yourself before looking for the answers  in the A+Click Brainteaser Problems.

Harry Foundalis collected hundreds of Bongard problems.

## Project Starters

Challenging puzzlers to create a positive attitude to real projects.

## How to Solve a Problem – Read the Question

Try to solve the following problem suggested by Leslie Green:

What is the difference between the number of letters in UPPER CASE and lower case in the text?

Most of the people and me too answered the question fast: None.

The trivial advice is often useful: “Try to answer exactly to the question.”

Do you get another answer? What is it?

## Pancake Math

“Archaeological evidence suggests that pancakes are probably the earliest and most widespread cereal food eaten in prehistoric societies.” – Wikipedia

What is the maximum number of sections into which a pancake may be divided into by four straight cuts through it?

Here more difficult questions go:

1) Is it possible to divided it so that all sections have equal area?

2) How many pancakes are needed to reach your height if they are squeezed by the weight of the upper pancakes?

3) If I spent 30 grams of batter for a pancake (French-style crêpe) of 30 cm in diameter how much batter do I need for the square pancake of the same thickness and the side length of 30 cm?

These and many other practical “pancake” questions are presented in the Applied Math section of A+Click series, which already includes more than 4500 questions.

## Mensa Tough Puzzle

Tough question from A+Click makes you crazy. 99.9% fail or refuse to solve it.

## The man who counted

The man who counted

“In 1932 Malba Tahan published what would became one of the most successful books ever written in Brazil – O Homem que Calculava – The Man Who Counted.”

## Math Magic: To Predict Unknown

One of the math magic is to predict unknown facts. Please find below several situations where math gives unexpected and useful answers.

1. Code Testers

John detected 2 errors and Mary – 3 errors in a code. There is one error in common. How many errors are still undetected?

It looks like a joke. However there is a mathematical solution of the problem that shows that the number of undetected errors is N. I am sure that you can easily to find the number N.

99.9% fail or refuse to solve it.

2. Lake Width

How estimate the width of a lake without crossing it? You just walk and make some measures at a lakeside.

For example in the situation shown at the picture the width of the lake is 200 meters.

3. How many fish are there in the lake?

Yesterday, I caught 30 fish of a certain size in the lake.
I marked and released them without any harm.
Today I also caught and released 80 fish of the same size and noticed that there were 6 marked fish in the second catch.

How many fish of the same size are there in the lake?

4.  Seller’s decision

I sell my car. People come to my garage one at a time and make bids to buy it. I make an immediate decision whether to accept or reject an offer after receiving it. I decide to reject the first N offers, mark the highest price P, and accept the first offer that is greater than P.

What number N do you recommend me if I expect that 100 people can make a bid?

If N is small, I can accept a small amount of money.
If N is large, I can reject the best offer.

This is the famous problem of the optimal stopping theory (Secretary Problem).

5. Winning Strategy

In a game, Anna and Bill take 1, 2, or 3 coins on each turn. The player to take the last coin from the pile wins. If Anna goes first and there are 40 coins on the table, how many coins should she take to guarantee that she would win?

The truth is “She always loses if Bill knows the winning strategy.” Do you know Bill’s strategy?

## No Math. No Problem!

John said:

No Math . . .  No Problem!

Real Word vs Math Word ???

SAT is a measure how much rich the guy’s parents are.

## Beautiful Math Problems

What are characteristics of the most beautiful math problems?

They are practical, they give an impression that the problem cannot be solved, and finish by an unexpected (surprise) solution.

It is not about the beautiful math equations or mathematical beauty. It is mostly about recreational math, brain teasers, and thinking outside the box.

Find a short list of my favourite beautiful problems:

1. Morozkin’s problem:

Vladimir Arnold (1937-2010), one of the greatest 20th century Russian mathematicians told the following story:

“Our schoolteacher I. V. Morozkin gave us the following problem: Two old women started at sunrise and each walked at a constant (different) velocity. One went from A to B and the other from B to A. They met at noon and, continuing with no stop, arrived respectively at B at 4 p.m. and at A at 9 p.m.  At what time was the sunrise on this day?”

Solution

2. Martin Gardner’s favorite problem

“Three sailors come across a pile of coconuts. The first sailor takes half of them plus half a coconut. The second sailor takes half of what is left, plus half a coconut. The third sailor also takes half of what remains, plus half a coconut. Left over is exactly one coconut, which they toss to a monkey. How many coconuts were in the original pile?”

Solution

3. Lucas problem

François Édouard Anatole Lucas (1842 – 1891) was a French mathematician.

Every day at noon, a ship leave Le Havre for New York and another ship leaves New York for Le Havre. The trip lasts 7 days and 7 nights. How many ships will a ship leaving Le Havre today meet at sea?

Solution

4. Euler bridge problem

In a city Konigsberg, there were seven bridges. There was a tradition to walk and cross over each of the seven bridges only once. If a person starts and finishes at the same point, can he accomplish this task?

Solution

5. Secretary problem

An entrepreneur wants to hire the best person for a position. He makes a decision immediately after the interview. Once rejected, an applicant cannot be recalled. He interviews N randomly chosen people out of 100 applicants, rejects them and records the best score S. After that, he continues to interview others and stops when the person has a score better than S. What number N do you recommend to the cruel man?

Solution

6. Monty Hall

A venture capitalist will invest in only one of three start-up companies: A, B, or C. I will make a lot of money if I invest in the same company, and will lose all of my money if I choose another company. I decide to invest in company A and I inform the venture capitalist. He assures me that he does not invest in company C. What company do you recommend for me to make the investment?

Solution

7. The Legend of Carthage

The Legend of Carthage: Queen Dido and her followers arrived in North Africa. The locals told them that they could have the coastal area that an ox hide would cover. She cut the hide into a series of thin strips, jointed them together, and formed a coastal shape. The ox-hide enclosed area was known as Carthage. If you had a 10 km long strip, which shape (rectangle, triangle, semi-circle, or semi-ellipse) would you choose to maximize the enclosed area?

Solution

8. Lewis Carroll’s Coaches

A coach leaves London for York and another at the same moment leaves York for London. They go at uniform rates, one faster than the other. After meeting and passing, one requires sixteen hours and the other nine hours to complete the journey. What total time does each coach require for the whole journey?

Solution

You are welcome to expand the list by submitting your input at the website www.aplusclick.org